Knowledge of woven fabric (part 1)

In the next series of articles, I will try to summarize some basic knowledge about fabrics, so that we can distinguish and understand what is woven, what is knitted. The difference between these two fabrics and the application is based on those technical differences.

Also in these articles, I will talk about some requirements for assessing the quality of each fabric. What requirements are required to become goods in some export markets such as the US, Europe … or in other words, which criteria of fabric must be checked and passed according to the main regulations? Covering imported countries such as fire resistance, formaldehyde content, pH, restricted substances content and other fabric standards are the common requirements of apparel brands around the world.
The woven fabric is created through the weaving process on the loom. In particular, two separate yarn systems called warp and weft are woven together to form a fabric. Warp (lengthwise yarns) is a system of yarns running from the back to the front of the weaving machine (warp or end). The system of crosswise yarns (crosswise yarns) is knitting yarn from one edge to the other through the width of the fabric (Fill or pick). The weaving loom is the part that holds the warp threads in the intended position while the weft is installed through it. Fibers made from natural fibers such as cotton, silk and wool as well as synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester, etc. can be used for weaving.
In fabrics, warp and weft are joined by a certain rule called weaving.

And here are some examples of common weaving styles:

+ Plain or Plain weave: Plain weave is the simplest of all weaving styles. The warp and weft threads of the same number are interwoven according to the one-to-one rule.

Each weft fills up and below each warp, alternately, creating a large number of intersection points.

Plain woven fabric has a strong and stiff texture, often used for fashion and interior fabrics.


+ Poplin fabric is a tightly woven fabric, similar to flat weave, designed with equal dimensions of warp and weft. The difference is that with flat or plain weaving, the warp system is small in size and more stringent, tighter, the number of warp yarns is often double compared to the weft yarns.

+ Twill or Twill fabric: Twill weaving is a method of weaving that creates a criss-cross structure in the fabric.

Twill fabrics are often softer than flat woven fabrics so the wrinkle resistance is often much higher than flat weave.

Twill is a weaving pattern with parallel diagonal stripes (different from satin and plain weave). This is done by weaving weft threads across one or more warp threads and then threading under one or more warp threads and repeating with a rule of deviation between rows to create solid diagonal patterns. requisition.

Technical twill fabric has one front and one back structure, while plain woven fabric has two identical sides. The front of the diagonal fabric is the clear surface of the diagonal lines; often used as the right side of the fabric, and is visible in the weaving process. Here are a few basic types of criss-cross:
General properties of woven fabric

– The fabric has a relatively durable structure.

– Tightly covered surface.

– Warp system is perpendicular to the system of weft.

– The vertical and horizontal elongation is very little. Little stretch can be made in the diagonal direction between the warp and weft. The woven fabric can only be stretched horizontally or vertically if it is designed with the participation of elastic yarn like Spandex or Lycra …

– Easy to get dirty, especially with some fabrics like cotton, linen …

– Fabrics are not curled edge, not slip round.

– Woven fabric less shrinkage than knitted fabric.

– There is a clear border.

– Diverse and abundant types of weaving and materials.

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