Distinguish several types of fiber commonly used in the textile industry

Natural fabrics are fabrics made from natural fibers available in nature. They are derived from plants such as: cotton fibers (obtained from bolls), flax fibers, thorns, jute … (obtained from flax, thorns, jute stems …).
Derived from animals such as wool fibers (obtained from the fur of animals such as sheep, goats, camels, rabbits …), silk (obtained from silkworm cocoons) …
Natural wool fabric commonly used in the world as well as in our country is a fabric made from cotton (cotton); wool, felt and silk. Currently, textile products made from silk are precious and popular items in the world.

Cotton fiber (cellulose fiber)
* Properties:
Advantages:
– High moisture absorption. Therefore, clothes made of cotton fabric wear cool, easy to sweat, suitable for tropical climate.
– Good heat resistance and insulation.
– Easy washing.
Defect:
– Easy to contract.
– Easy to crumble, when it is hard to keep sticky.
– Easily rotten by bacteria, mold invasive.
* How to identify:
– When pulling off yarn, it is tough and the place is not ruffled.
– When gently rubbing fabric lays many wrinkles.
– When burning fabric burns fast and smells like burnt paper. White ash, small amount and fragile.
* Use and storage:
– Use to make summer clothes, cotton fabric suitable for living things that need good hygroscopic properties such as pillows, blankets, bed sheets, hand towels, bath towels, table cloths, napkins, cloth shoes …
– The ironing temperature is suitable from 180 – 200 degrees C, easier ironing when the fabric is damp, so it should be steamed or moistened before ironing.
– Wash with alkaline soap.
– Drying or sun drying, store in a dry place to avoid mold.
* Trade names of some cotton fabrics:
Eight canvas, calicot, puss, batiste, popline, bucket, khaki, jean …
b / Silk fabric (protein fiber)
silkcocoons * Properties:
Advantages:
– Soft, smooth, light ball.
– Good insulation and insulation.
– Wear cool, hygroscopic good: 11%.
Defect:
– Easy contraction.
– Poor heat resistance, high temperatures make silk brittle, broken. Sunlight and sweat make it rotting and yellowing.
– Poorly resistant to alkali.
* How to identify:
– Hand-held cool, shiny cloth surface.
– Burn slowly and smell like burnt hair, brown, spongy, fizzy burn heads.
* Use and storage:
– Silk for making ao dai or chemise (shirt); high-end goods, can sew complet … Because of its good thermal insulation properties, silk clothes are cool in summer and warm in winter.
– Appropriate ironing temperature from 140 – 150 degrees C. You can iron on the left or right side, use a damp cloth to place on the cloth before ironing on the right side. If you iron at very high temperatures, the silk loses its shine.
– Wash with neutral soap (for example, shampoos), lemon, locust in warm water.
– Keep in the shade, avoid direct sunlight on the fabric.
* Trade names for some types of silk fabrics:
Silk, plays, the, torus, thighs (raw silk fabric, thick) …

Wool (protein fiber)
* Properties:
Advantages:
– Keeping the heat well therefore suitable for temperate climates.
– Lightweight, porous, highly durable fabric.
– Less wrinkled, less elastic, less absorbent.
Defect:
– Poorly resistant to alkali.
– Easily destroyed by bacteria and mold.
* How to identify:
– Hold your hand.
– The fabric has rough bristles.
– When spinning, the yarn has a large stretch.
– Burning is weak, has a burning smell like burning hair.
– Black ash, porous, fragile.
* Use and storage:
– Used to make outerwear in winter such as manteau, blouson, complet …
– Washing with neutral soap (or soap for wool only due to poor alkali resistant wool), suits or high-quality wool usually dry (dry clean), steam (if normal washing will be large shrinkage, distortion, reducing the quality and beauty of the product). Do not wash in hot water.
– Dry in a cool, airy place.
– Store carefully to avoid cockroaches, bite mites.

2. Chemical fiber cloth

A fabric woven with chemical fibers. Chemical fiber fabrics have the advantage of being free of impurities, less destructive by microorganisms and mold. Based on starting materials and production methods, chemical fibers are divided into harmful types:
* Artificial fibers: are fibers made from naturally occurring polymers (polymers) such as cellulose‚Ķ. Raw materials are bamboo, wood, cork … high cellulose content. The starting materials are dissolved in chemicals such as soude, carbone disulfure, sulfurique acid, sulfate salts, etc., to be spun into textiles. They are viscose fibers (or its denatured forms are rayon, polino …), acetate. These yarns still have the composition and properties of starting materials.
Continuous long viscose yarn for weaving silk, tartant and satin items; Short viscose yarns for weaving fibrous fabrics or blending with other fibers into blends. Acetate yarn is used to weave some thin, light items, used to make clothes for women, children, weaving scarves …
* Synthetic fibers: are fibers made from chemical raw materials.
The starting material is coal, petroleum, gas … through complex transformations such as coal distillation, cracking of petroleum, synthesizing polimer …, forming raw materials for the production of synthetic fibers. These materials have different composition and properties than the starting materials.

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